Coral Bean: Humming Bird Fast Food

by Green Deane

in Antioxidants, Flowers, Greens/Pot Herb, Medicinal, Toxic to Pets/livestock, Trees/Shrubs

Erythrina herbacea: Part Edible, Part Not

Eastern Coral Bean in blossom

The (eastern) Coral Bean is one of those damned if you do, and damned if you don’t kind of things.  Parts of it are edible, parts of it are toxic, narcotic and hallucinogenic. So there is a trade off: Very easy to identify, but harvest carefully.

The boiled flowers and young leaves are edible, cooked like string beans but in more water.  This semi-toxic plant and also quite healthy. A Japanese study published in the Journal of Natural Medicines, 29 Jan 2008, confirmed five antioxidants in the coral bean flower and found a sixth antioxidant. I boil mine for 15 minutes in plenty of water. They turn green and limp when cooked and reduce in size so collect a lot. The flavor is mild, like young spinach.

Coral Bean is a plant of the old South and into Mexico. But, it can grow not only across the southern tier of the United States but up the east coast to Maryland and up the west coast to Washington state. Out hiking it is always very easy to spot though in the wild it is rarely more than a spindly bush. However most people know the coral bean as a landscape plant and under cultivation and ideal conditions can reach 25 feet.

Cooked young leaves edible, but poor fare

It is one of those odd thing in the plant world that people interested in plants tend to view them three basic ways. One is the agriculturist who views them as a commodity.   There are those like foragers who tend to land on the nature side of things. They want to know where does it grow and can it be eaten. Then there are those who view plants like artistic elements to be put in a living canvas, the landscaped garden. I have a close friend like that. His property is as disciplined as mine is feral. He knows probably not a botanical name, nor which leaf he can eat, yet he’s a good husband of his plants and his yard a thing of beauty.  He works very hard at it.

A coal bean to him would be a bit of color, and color over time because a landscaped garden is an interplay of plants as the season progresses. To an agriculturist the coral bean is a source of costly contamination, especially the seeds. It is a weed, weeds cost money and they are thus called noxious and must be dealt with as some enemy. To me it is something to add to the herb pot if it is shy on content. And I suppose there is a fourth group that includes most people. They ignore plants even though their lives depend on them.

The seeds are toxic, do not eat

The coral bean is an interesting plant for many reasons, one of which is that it always turns it leaves towards the sun. Each petiole has three uterine-shaped leaves, two on short stems but all three stems have the ability to turn the leaf. And you will notice unlike most trees and more like an herb, the smaller leaves are in the middle. Those are the edible young leaves, and of course, the red blossoms, both cooked. The seeds are NOT edible. They have been used for beads, however, and played an important religious role for the Aztecs in auguring the future. In tiny amounts the seeds are said to be hallucinogenic.

As for the toxin, it is not great according to the data base of the state of North Carolina. It varies from according to age, weight, physical condition and individual susceptibility. Most of the reports involve kids eating the scarlet seeds. In Mexico the seeds are used to poison rats, dogs and fish. It is similar to curare and hypnotic. That the flowers and leaves are edible is confirmed by no less august authority than Dr. Julia Morton, who for most of her life was the final say on toxic plants in warm climates, such as Florida. In fact, she is one of the experts that authored the edible plant portion of the U.S. military’s survival guide. I like the flowers. Boiled they are a mild in flavor.

The flowers of the Erythrina flabelliformis (fla-bel-ih-FOR-miss, fan shaped) are  reported as edible — very favored in Mexico — but I have not tried them.

As for the botanical name of the coral bean, Erythrina herbacea (air-rith-RYE-nuh hur-BAY-see-uh) …There are about 112 species in the genus Erythrina, which comes from the Greek word ερυθρος which means red.  The species name, herbacea in Latin means “grass, low growing, not woody.” It was named that because this particular plant is more herbaceous than others in the genus.  Many of the plants in the genus are well-known and used in the tropics and subtropics as street and park trees. Some are used as shade trees for coffee or cacao and can grow to a hundred feet high. In most of its range in the United State the Coral Bean is a bush. The common name might come from the fact the flowers are shaped like a form of red coral. It is also called the Cherokee Bean, who used a decoction of the root for various purposes including kidney and urinary blockage.

Besides brilliant color the Coral Bean’s second claim to fame is that it’s fast food for humming birds. They were made for each other and one of the quickest way to get hummers to your yard is to grow a Coral Bean, just keep the seeds away from the kids. Humming birds, by the way, follow routes, kind of like air corridors called traplinings, (for next time you’re playing scrabble….

Other known edibles in the genus include E. americana, E. berteroana, E. fusca, E. rubrinervia, and E. veriegata.

Green Deane’s “Itemized” Plant Profile

IDENTIFICATION: Bush, three to sixteen feet,compound, uterine-shaped leaves lost in winter in cooler areas, kept in warm areas, herbaceous, bushy, can survive a lot of trimming. Stems have small, curves prickles, as do leaves. Flowers on leafless spikes  in early to early summer depending upon the latitude, young leaves throughout the growing season. Easily blooms in February in Florida. Occasionally blossoms in fall. In dry areas can keep blossoms after leaves have fallen

TIME OF YEAR: Broken shade, sandy woods, hardwood hammocks,  dry coastal tidewater  areas, roadsides

ENVIRONMENT: Usually an understory plant among other bushes. But I’ve also seen it grow in full sun. Become less common due to destruction of habitat.

METHOD OF PREPARATION: Boil young leaves and blossoms in ample water. Whether the blossoms are edible raw is a bit of a debate with one authority quoting another in a questionable reference saying yes. Be safe and don’t eat them raw. I know one can be eaten raw but beyound that I do know know. Besides containing harmful alkaloids, they contain antioxidants. Flowers turn mushy while cooking and loose their red color.

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{ 11 comments… read them below or add one }

Annie Schiller April 13, 2016 at 16:00

Just want to let you know that your site has been a valuable resource and peace of mind for me. I create bouquets and arrangements that feature native plants that I grow and I’m always researching toxicity of flowers before I use them. Up until now I thought the coralbean flowers were toxic. So happy to know I can use them in table arrangements. No more avoiding due to worry that they will kill someone that accidentally ingests them. Thanks green Deanne.

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Green Deane April 13, 2016 at 17:20

Young ones yes… not so sure about older blossoms…

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Shawne August 23, 2014 at 15:54

I just bought a coral bean plant a couple of months ago and it seemed to be doing well. There were two stalks, the taller one and then an offshoot coming from the bottom. When I went out the other morning I noticed that something had stripped all of the leaves from the taller stalk. Nothing seems to be on the plant and nothing has gone after the lower stalk yet. Any idea what it could be and how I deter it?

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Green Deane August 23, 2014 at 16:55

Lots of insects and their caterpiller state like them.

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Sue Slawson April 3, 2014 at 08:59

I have a coral bean in my yard and I have no idea how to care for it. Each year new growth comes from the bottom and the old canes just lie bare. It is getting wider and wider. Am I supposed to cut the old canes down to the ground?

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Dew July 11, 2013 at 21:35

Well, I finally got up the courage to boil some up… I’ll let you know how it goes…

The green seed pods smell like snap beans to me and the unripe seeds inside are not red yet, but when green… well, they are white to light greenish/white…

I’ll let you know if I start hallucinating.. If I come back on here and start typing strange theories.. then you’ll know…

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Green Deane July 12, 2013 at 02:38

One boils the blossoms, not the beans or pods.

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Thomas guidry April 14, 2017 at 16:30

As a kid growing up in south Louisiana , we would mash the dried beans and boil them as a tea for colds. Still kicking. Just saying

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lisa stebbins April 22, 2013 at 11:49

can u tell me how to plant off from one.. do i use the pod seeds ??

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Green Deane April 22, 2013 at 16:08

That’s what nature does, drops the dry seeds to the ground.

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plantguy March 14, 2014 at 03:31

The seeds will not grow by simply falling on the ground, or being planted. They have a hard red outer shell that has to be cracked open first. (Sometimes they do this naturally, but rarely.)

It’s easier to find a piece of root and plant that. They usually regrow from their roots or from existing branches. They prefer sandy soils and will regrow the next year if they don’t freeze.

To plant the seeds you have to nick/crack off a piece of the hard red shell to expose the yellowish white inside and submerse it in water. Change the water every day and continue until you see a root beginning to grow out of the nicked area of the bean. Once the root is visibly protruding from the seed, plant it in soil. For the first year, keep it in a pot and bring it inside during fall/winter. After the first year it can be planted and if maintained properly can grow into a tree reaching 25 feet tall. Once they are planted in the ground they are hard to relocate because of their deep extensive roots. During fall/winter only water it lightly once a week.

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